What is a Stress Fracture?


Stress fractures are one of the most common sports injuries, especially among competitive athletes. A stress fracture is an overuse injury that occurs when muscles become fatigued and are unable to absorb shock and protect the bones as they usually do. When repitive stress is placed on fatigued muscles, eventually the overload of stress is transferred to the bone, causing a tiny crack or stress fracture. Stress fractures, also known as hairline fractures or fatigue fractures, most commonly occur in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot.


  1. Metatarsal Stress Fractures: These fractures affect the long metatarsal bones of the foot. They are frequently observed in individuals engaged in high-impact activities like running or sports that involve repetitive foot movements.
  2. Tibial Stress Fractures: These lower limb fractures manifest in the shinbone (tibia) and are particularly prevalent in athletes and military personnel. They can be further classified into:
    • Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (Shin Splints): This is characterized by discomfort along the inner edge of the shinbone.
    • Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures: These occur towards the front of the shinbone.
    • Posterior Tibial Stress Fractures: These occur towards the back of the shinbone.
  3. Femoral Neck Stress Fractures: These fractures are situated in the neck of the thigh bone (femur) and are more frequently observed in older adults. They can be associated with conditions such as osteoporosis.
  4. Femoral Shaft Stress Fractures: These lower extremity fractures occur along the shaft of the femur and are relatively uncommon.
  5. Pelvic Stress Fractures: These can occur in various parts of the pelvis, including the pubic bone (pubic ramus), sacrum, or hip bones (iliac crest). They are more common in athletes involved in sports with repetitive hip movement.
  6. Navicular Stress Fractures: These affect the small bone on the top of the midfoot (navicular bone). They are prevalent among athletes engaged in activities like running, gymnastics, and ballet.
  7. Fibular Stress Fractures: These develop in the smaller bone of the lower leg (fibula). While less common than tibial stress fractures, they can still occur, particularly in athletes.
  8. Calcaneal Stress Fractures: These occur in the heel bone (calcaneus) and are relatively rare. They may be observed in long-distance runners or military personnel.
  9. Rib Stress Fractures: These can develop in the ribs, especially in athletes participating in sports that involve repetitive upper body movements.
  10. Humerus Stress Fractures: These occur in the upper arm bone (humerus) and are relatively infrequent. They can be seen in athletes participating in throwing sports.


Common causes of stress fractures include increasing the amount or intensity of an activity too quickly, changing activities to an unfamiliar surface, improper equipment, and increased physical stress. If certain conditions such as osteoporosis have weakened the bones, stress fractures may result from everyday activities. Athletes who participate in repetitive, high-impact sports are usually at higher risk for stress fractures, such as tennis, running, gymnastics, basketball, or dance. Even folks who are not athletes can experience stress fractures due to a change or sudden increase in activity, like walking excessively on vacation or wearing a new style of shoe.


  1. High-Impact Activities: Engaging in activities that involve repetitive and high-impact movements, such as running, basketball, gymnastics, and military training, increases the risk of stress fractures.
  2. Sudden Increase in Activity: Rapidly increasing the intensity, duration, or frequency of exercise or physical activity without allowing the body to adapt can lead to stress fractures.
  3. Improper Footwear: Wearing shoes that do not provide proper support, cushioning, or fit can contribute to stress fractures.
  4. Biomechanical Issues: Abnormalities in the structure or alignment of the feet, such as flat feet or high arches, can increase stress on certain bones and elevate the risk of stress fractures.
  5. Muscle Weakness or Imbalances: Weakness in specific muscle groups, particularly those responsible for shock absorption and stability, can lead to increased stress on bones.
  6. Poor Conditioning: Insufficient physical conditioning, including inadequate strength and flexibility training, can make the body more susceptible to stress fractures.
  7. Nutritional Deficiencies: Inadequate intake of essential nutrients, particularly calcium and vitamin D, can weaken bones and increase the risk of fractures.
  8. Female Athlete Triad: This syndrome involves the interplay of disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. It is common in female athletes and can lead to an increased risk of stress fractures.
  9. Previous History of Stress Fractures: Having experienced a stress fracture in the past raises the likelihood of developing another in the future.
  10. Reduced Bone Density: Conditions like osteoporosis or low bone density due to aging, hormonal imbalances, or certain medications can increase the risk of stress fractures.
  11. Overtraining: Excessive training or insufficient rest between workouts can lead to overuse injuries, including stress fractures.
  12. Inadequate Recovery: Not allowing sufficient time for the body to recover after intense physical activity can increase the risk of stress fractures.
  13. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions or medications that weaken bones, such as rheumatoid arthritis or long-term corticosteroid use, can elevate the risk of stress fractures.
  14. Genetic Predisposition: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition that makes them more susceptible to stress fractures.


  • Dull, achy pain – usually brought on by activity and subsides with rest
  • Swelling and tenderness
  • Possible bruising
  • May not be visible on early x-rays

What does a stress fracture feel like?

A stress fracture typically manifests as a localized, gradually intensifying pain focused on a specific area. Unlike sudden acute fractures, stress fractures develop over time and are often associated with repetitive, high-impact sports. This discomfort tends to increase during weight-bearing activities or when pressure is applied to the affected bone. In some cases, there may also be tenderness or sensitivity when touching the area around the suspected fracture site. While swelling may be present, it is usually less prominent compared to acute fractures.

Can I walk on a stress fracture?

While it’s possible to walk with a stress fracture, especially in its early stages or if it’s not too severe, doing so can exacerbate the injury and impede the healing process. Initially, individuals may experience manageable pain during low-impact activities or when putting minimal weight on the affected area. However, as the fracture progresses or if it’s located in a weight-bearing bone, the pain can intensify, making walking increasingly uncomfortable and difficult.

In some cases, individuals may alter their gait to compensate for the discomfort, potentially leading to additional strain on other parts of the body. It is crucial to promptly seek medical attention if a stress fracture is suspected. Continuing to walk on a stress fracture can lead to more severe complications and a longer recovery time.

When should I see a doctor?

Early intervention is key to a successful recovery and preventing any further complications. If you are noticing pain and/or swelling it may be time to see your orthopedic surgeon so they can provide an accurate diagnosis and recommend the most suitable course of action.

Diagnosing a stress fracture

Your orthopedic surgeon will first conduct a physical examination, focusing on the area of discomfort. They will inquire about the onset of pain and any associated symptoms. Additionally, they may ask about activities that might have contributed to the injury. During the examination, the provider might request you to perform specific movements, such as standing on one leg or hopping, to assess mobility and pinpoint the potential location of the stress fracture. Understanding these details helps in the diagnostic process. In addition to the physical exam, X-rays are frequently used to identify stress fractures, although they may not always immediately reveal the fracture. In cases where X-rays are inconclusive, a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to provide more detailed images and confirm the diagnosis.


If a stress fracture is not properly treated, the pain and fracture can become more severe and may eventually result in a complete break of the bone. Depending on the location and severity of your injury, your orthopedic surgeon will come up with a treatment plan that could include modified activity to reduce stress on the fracture, shoe inserts, walker boots or braces, or even casting. In some cases, surgery may be required if the fracture does not heal on its own.

Non-Surgical Treatment for Stress Fractures:

  1. Rest: The primary treatment for stress fractures is rest. This means avoiding activities that put weight or stress on the affected bone. In some cases, this may require the use of crutches or a walking boot to offload weight.
  2. Immobilization: In addition to rest, immobilization techniques such as using a cast, brace, or walking boot may be recommended to stabilize the affected area and promote healing.
  3. Ice and Elevation: Applying ice and elevating the affected limb can help reduce swelling and inflammation, especially in the early stages.
  4. Pain Management: Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help manage pain and reduce inflammation.
  5. Physical Therapy: Once the initial pain and swelling have subsided, physical therapy may be prescribed to improve strength, flexibility, and balance, and to facilitate a gradual return to normal activities.
  6. Activity Modification: Adjusting exercise routines, incorporating strength training, changing footwear to a more supportive shoe, or using orthotics can help reduce stress on the affected bone and prevent further injury.

Surgical Treatment for Stress Fractures:

In severe cases or when the fracture is at risk of displacement, surgical intervention may be necessary. A surgeon will perform a procedure called Internal Fixation that involves the use of pins, screws, or plates to stabilize the fractured bone.

Stress fracture rehabilitation

Typically, stress fractures require around 6 weeks to heal, with most individuals resuming normal activities within 10-16 weeks. However, the precise recovery duration varies for each patient as it depends on several factors. Your orthopedic surgeon will provide a tailored rehabilitation plan, along with an estimated healing timeline. It’s crucial to follow this plan and, once cleared by your physician after complete healing, gradually reintegrate into your regular activities.


  • Start new activities slowly – gradually increase your time, speed, and distance.
  • Maintain a balanced and healthy diet, incorporating calcium and Vitamin D to help build bone strength.
  • Use proper equipment and replace old or worn equipment when necessary.
  • If pain or swelling occurs, stop your activity and rest for a few days. If pain persists, make an appointment with your orthopedic specialist.

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